Running Injury

Hamstring Injury - Part 1: Anatomy & Runner's Risk

It’s the start of a beautiful day. You were able to get to the track around 6:00 am for a solid speed workout, your favorite. You warm-up, go through your stretching and dynamic movement routine (Best Warm-Up Routine Here), and besides a little early morning stiffness, you feel great. Then it happens, you are on number 5 or 12 200 meter repeats, and the back of your leg cramps up something fierce! You stop, stretch, massage, but nothing helps…now you can’t run - workout over.

If this sounds familiar, you know that hamstring injuries are terrible. They are hard to predict, difficult to treat, and can sideline a running longer than a stress fracture. As distance runners, this is a less common injury when compared to Runner’s KneeShin Splints, and IT Band Syndrome…but they can be much more complicated and stubborn to bounce back from.

As a Salt Lake City-based runner myself, I have had a few minor (luckily) hamstring injuries back in my hurdling days. Now, as a primarily distance runner, spending more time on the trails of the Wasatch Mountains, my hamstrings have felt strong and resistant to stress. But as we will discuss in this series, that doesn’t mean it can’t all go south tomorrow.

If you have ever watched a runner IMMEDIATELY pull-up in a race and can see the grimace on their face; you can almost feel their pain. If you have been unfortunate enough to experience this yourself, you don’t want to ever think about that moment again…so let’s move on!

We are here to take a deep look at and discuss hamstring injuries. What they are, how they happen, the different types of hamstring injuries we experience as runners, what you can do about them, how to rehab a hamstring injury, what the return to running process looks like, and eventually how we can prevent a dreaded hamstring injury.  


Hamstring Anatomy & Function

Hamstring Anatomy Review

Before we dive in to the function of the hamstring, how it responds during the running gait, and the injuries common among the running group, lets have an anatomy review, shall we?

The hamstring group is made up of 3 muscles, one of which has two heads, meaning we have 4 areas to concern ourselves with. The muscles and their actions are as follow:

 
hamstring-injury-rehab-utah-sports-chiropractor.jpg
 

Semitendinosis: The semitendinosis mucles originates from the ischial tuberosity (sit bone) and inserts below the knee on the medial side of the tibia. This orientation causes it to act on two joints meaning it is both a Knee Flexor and Hip Extender. Due to its insertion on the inside of the tibia bone, it can internally/medially rotate the tibia when the knee is bent and also internally rotate the femur when the knee is extended.

Semimembranosis: The semimenbranosis muscle originates and inserts very closely to the semitendinosis and acts similarly as a knee flexor and (poor) hip extender. There are subtle differences in the two ‘semi muscles’ but it’s claim to fame is more along the lines that is may play a role in knee stability given it is suspected to have a functional relationship with the popliteus muscle on the back of the knee and a few fibers supporting the MCL. We learn more about the body everyday, so this may change.

Biceps Femoris: The Biceps Femoris has a similar function as the ‘Semi muscles’ in that it assists in knee flexion, and lower leg deceleration during the runners gain cycle, but it is somewhat special. The biceps femoris muscle has two heads that attach to two different places. The long head comes all the way from ischial tuberosity like the ‘semi brothers’, crossing the hip joint, making it a hip extender. But the short head, it comes off the back of the femur at a spot called the linea aspera. The short head does not cross the hip joint so it does not extend the hip, but it does have a special power. If you are unfortunate enough to experience an avulsion of the hamstring origin off the ischial tuberosity, the short head is still attached and allows you to, albeit weakly, flex the knee. This allows you to maintain some ability of ambulation. Our bodies are smart!

Basic Function Of The Hamstrings In Running

The hamstrings have a very important role in the running gait cycle, but it may not be what you think. As distance runners, our hamstrings are not as strongly used as in our sprinting counterparts, but as we all know after a good speed work session, they are back there serving ther purpose.

HamstringInRunningUtahChiropractor.jpg

To keep this simple. The hamstrings job is to ‘slow’ down the leg as it swings forward. WHAT? SLOW DOWN? Yes! And the faster you run, the harder it works to slow down the leg.

It does this in what is called an eccentric contraction. Simply put, the hamstring fires as the leg swings forward so that your foot and lower leg do not go flying out, causing the knee to fully extend, and then you land on a locked knee. This would cause many injuries, and runners with a lack of control here often have knee and hamstring injuries.

Okay, so lets go a little deeper…nerd-out if you will.

For a great review of the gait cycle, check out the  Biomechanic .

For a great review of the gait cycle, check out the Biomechanic.

  • When the leg is planted in the stance phase, the hamstring contracts with the quads and adductors to create a stable platform inwhich we can use our momentum to continue to propel forward.

  • As the leg moves into the toe off phase, the hamstring supports by contracting more concentrically aiding in the push-off that propels us forward..but here is where it gets fun.

  • During the mid part of the swing phase, the hamstring is passive as the quads and adductors do most of the work bringing the leg foward. The hamstring does work to pull the heel toward the butt in good form, but they do more stretch than anything as studies suggest the hamstring stretches from 50% length to 90% length during this time.

  • Once we start moving from mid swing to heel contact, the hamstring kicks in eccentrically, and puts the brakes on the lower leg, allowing for a stable platform to land and maintain during the new stance phase.

What Do The Hamstring Do For Distance Runners?

As distance runners, we work through all of theses running phases, just less draumatically than our explosvie sprinter friends. The hamstrings act more in the stability and concentric role during our long outings, which leads way to one theory as to why distance runners deal with more tendinopathy injuries (generally overuse) than strains and avulsion injuries (dynamic and powerful contractions).


What Types Of Hamstring Injuries Do Runners Experience?

Acute Hamstring Strains In Runners: 

This is one of the most common overall injuries to plague athletes, for running, it is usually a problem for the sprinter of the group. A muscle strain, or pulled muscle, occurs when a muscle is suddenly overstretched, resulting in the tearing of some of the fibers within the fascicles that make up the larger muscle as a whole. This can be a very small percentage which only causes mild tightness, to a more prominent injury that can range from mild swelling, to complete immobility with bruising and severe swelling.

As a runner, if you are to experience a hamstring injury, a mild strain is preferable. Typically, we can get back out and perform modified running in 2-4 weeks with full healing and return to play in 4-8 weeks.  

Hamstring Tendinopathy In Runners: 

This is what we see most. As distance runners, we typically run far, make us prone to overuse injuries. Those injuries typically start with a little tightness that goes unaddressed because we are able to continue running. Over time, that muscle tightness begins to place an overload on the tendon, and that tendon begins to get irritated. In can inflame, dehydrate, become sensitive, and eventually make it difficult to run, walk, or sit for long periods.  

There are two places this can occur, the lower tendon insertion, which we typically see acutely after a race, fall, or a big downhill effort. This area is often where we see a rupture in sprinters. If you have ever watched a 100m or 200m race and seen a running pull up very quickly and then fall or start hopping, this is what they experienced, and it can be career-ending at the highest level of the sport. 

Now, for the upper tendon origin. High hamstring tendinopathy is so common and so frustrating, it has been listed in the runner’s guide of forbidden phrases. High hamstring injuries suck…there is no way around it. These injuries take TIME and often require some time off from running. I told you it was a forbidden term.

High hamstring tendinopathy typically takes 3-6 months for a full recovery and complete release to high volume and high intensity running. Care involves a strict plan for in-office and home care…and even with that, we still send out a good percentage for co-management with an orthopedist.  

To summarize this injury. Don’t ignore your hamstring tightness or an injury you believe to be a mild strain. Give it attention, seek help, and rest if necessary. Unfortunately, some runners will press on, and the outcome is very unfortunate.

Hamstring Avulsion Injuries In Runners.

This is a tough one that typically requires surgical intervention. An avulsion injury is when the hamstring tendon pulls away from its attachment on the bone and takes part of the bone with it. These are uncommon without a significant mechanism of injury, we don’t typically see this from just running, but it has happened. This injury will cause severe pain, swelling, and bruising and should be examined by an orthopedist as soon as possible as the muscle can begin to ‘roll-up’ and atrophy shortly after the injury.


Dr. Reheisse is a Board Certified Chiropractic Sports Physician practicing in Cottonwood Heights Utah. Revive Sport & Spine provides evidence-supported chiropractic care and conservative sports injury management.

If you are in the greater Salt Lake City, Utah area and are a runner dealing with a nagging hamstring injury, we are here to help. Click the link below to schedule a consultation appointment and lets get you back out and running.

Youth Running: Benefits, Risks, & Considerations

Running is one of the best (coming from a runner) and easiest sports to take up in the world. Running is a major part of nearly every sport on the planet, making it an excellent option for our school-aged athletes. In 2017, almost 500,000 runners ran XC, and over 1 million athletes ran track. With the ease of access and a million different training techniques and training theories comes the risk of adverse effects. Over the last 10 years, we have seen a 34% increase in injuries incidence among runners.

Shin splints can be an precursor to stress fractures in young runners. Check out our  MTSS Blog Series  to prevent and rehab this common injury.

Shin splints can be an precursor to stress fractures in young runners. Check out our MTSS Blog Series to prevent and rehab this common injury.

It is estimated that 20-80% of runners will experience an injury in a given year. Random range, right? You try to find two studies that can agree on this! However, we do know that more than 50% of all pediatric sports injuries are due to overuse. We also know that overuse has is signs and symptoms and can be prevented.

What do we know about youth running? A lot actually. Let’s look at the facts and discuss how we can prevent future injuries so our young runners can enjoy a life-long relationship with this wonderful sport.

BENEFITS OF RUNNING FOR YOUTH ATHLETES

  • Great Cardiovascular Health.

  • Improved Cognitive Development.

    • Exercise increases metacognition, behavior regulation, and accelerates behavioral and emotional engagement.

  • Bone Health - Increased Bone Density

  • Positive Self Image & Emotional Wellbeing

  • Aids in Development of Total Athleticism.

 
Running injuries are common in youth-aged runners, but the benefits from frequent exercise, competition, and camaraderie far outweigh the risks.  Learn more about beginning running for health and fitness here.

Running injuries are common in youth-aged runners, but the benefits from frequent exercise, competition, and camaraderie far outweigh the risks. Learn more about beginning running for health and fitness here.

 

CURRENT TRENDS IN YOUTH RUNNING: INJURY RISKS

  • Accelerated Growth.

    • Peak height velocity (when children grow fastest, resulting in bones lengthen faster than muscles and tendons can keep up with) occurs around 12 for females and 14 for males.

    • Just before this rapid growth, bone mineral content is at its lowest, making bones and growth plates vulnerable to the load and stress of running.

  • Low Bone Mass For Age.

    • Affects 39% of female youth runners.

    • Might be the more likely cause of stress fractures than training load.

  • Low Energy Availability, Relative Energy Deficiency in Sports

    • Adolescence is a time of rapid growth with unmet energy demands…inadequate calorie intake with increased running demand can lead to abnormal menstrual function in females, bone mass depletion, and high risk of musculoskeletal injuries and stress fractures.

  • Males Commonly Suffer From Low Bone Mineral Density As Well.

    • Risk factors include being less than 85% weight for height, running over 30 miles per week, a history of stress fractures, and having a diet lacking in calcium-rich foods.

  • Answering ‘YES’ To The Following:

    • ‘do you believe that being thinner leads to faster running performances?’

    • BIG RED FLAG

  • Increased Anxiety or Avoidant Coping Strategies Such As Denial.

    • Perfectionism-related thoughts are associated with higher rates of depression, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and eating disorders.

  • History Of Previous Running Injuries.

    • Strong indicators for in-season injuries are injuries during summer training (female) and history of previous running injury (males).

 
All Credit To The Authors. No CopyRight Violation Intended.  Full Article Access Here.

All Credit To The Authors. No CopyRight Violation Intended. Full Article Access Here.

 


HOW CAN WE PREVENT INJURY IN YOUTH RUNNERS:

To prevent injury, cross training is necessary. Recent data suggest that shorter intense bouts of activity like sprinting, other sports, and neuromuscular training are better for developing motor skills compared with endurance running. Remember, though they grow, they are still kids and need time to play. Play outside, play other sports, rest from play. Don’t forget that.

  • Strength Training #1 - Improved Core And Pelvic Strength Led To Faster Race Times.

    • A 6 week strength program aimed at pelvic and core strength led to improved race times. Strength training also leads to better weight control, improved motor performance skills, improved cardiovascular health, and enhanced psychosocial well-being…oh, and less sports-related injuries.

  • Strength Training #2 - Spine & Hip Strengthening.

    • Exercises aimed at the spine and hip muscles helped injured youth runners rehab from injury faster and prevented future occurrences of common running injuries such as Achilles tendinosis, iliotibial band syndrome, runner’s knee, plantar fasciitis, and shin splints.

  • Strength Training #3 - Strength Training For Runners Program.

  • Set Realistic Expectations - Know Age & Developmental Stage Capabilities.

    • Unrealistic expectations lead to athlete frustration, low self-esteem, burnout, and injury! This can lead to reclusiveness, depression, and loss of enjoyment.

  • Monitor Youth Runners For Signs Of Burnout.

    • Students athletes who withdraw from activities they previously enjoyed may be experiencing chronic stress and burnout from their sport. This leads to more complicated issues if unaddressed, like depression, obsessive-compulsiveness, and eating disorders.

    • If an athlete becomes more irritable, anxious, or struggles with perfectionism, they are demonstrating signs of burnout. They need time off or decreased self, coach, and or parental pressures related to their sports.

  • Coordination Of Care For An Athlete.

    • Extrinsic risk factors for injury include improper training volume, intensity, or progression, early sports specialization, poor footwear, and inefficient running form. These factors are better addressed when the athlete, parent, coach, and healthcare provider have open communication with the athletes BEST INTEREST at the forefront.

  • Modify Training Program To Allow Rest Periods

    • Injury can be reduced by developing a training plan that limits weekly and yearly participation time to reduce repetitive movements and increase scheduled rest periods within each week, season, and annual training cycle.

    • Suggested rest is at least 1 day per week, 1-2 weeks every 3 months, and participation limited to 9-10 months per year.

  • Avoid Early Sports Specialization (Bolded Based on IMPORTANCE)

    • Highly specialized youth athletes (those participating in one sport more than 8 months of the year) report more injuries than their peers, independent of age, sex, or training volume.

    • Early Sport Specialization is associated with unidimensional identity with the sport leading to the athlete feeling as like they lack control with their participation in that sport. This leads to burnout.

All Credit To The Authors & AJSM. No Copyright Violation Intended.  Click Here To Access Full Article.

All Credit To The Authors & AJSM. No Copyright Violation Intended. Click Here To Access Full Article.


When To Seek Treatment

Now that we are aware of injury risks, YOU have to take preventive measures. For some, this means a little time off before training ramps up again. For others, it’s time to hit the gym, toss a ball around, shoot some hoops, and spend some time at the pool.

Early Care Is Crucial To Retruning To Running In a Resonable Time-Frame.  Schedule Today.   Shin Splint Pain Relief ->  CLICK HERE   IT Band Pain Relief ->  CLICK HERE   Runner’s Knee Pain Relief ->  CLICK HERE

Early Care Is Crucial To Retruning To Running In a Resonable Time-Frame. Schedule Today.

Shin Splint Pain Relief -> CLICK HERE

IT Band Pain Relief -> CLICK HERE

Runner’s Knee Pain Relief -> CLICK HERE

When it comes to injuries, we know two things.

  • (1) Rest is rarely beneficial for sports injury recovery. Rehab needs to be active!

  • (2) The sooner you seek care with an injury, the sooner you will be back out and running.

If you or your child has been training for the upcoming cross country season but are continually being sidelined by injury and illness, it’s time to find help and get back on track. If you are a runner in the Salt Lake City area, Revive Sport & Spine is your go-to clinic to get you back up and running quickly, giving you the tools to help you run faster, farther, and more efficient than before.

Krabak et al. Youth Distance Running: Strategies for Training and Injury Reduction. American College of Sports Medicine. 2019. Current Sports Medicine Reports. www.acsm-csmr.org.


Dr. Reheisse is a Board Certified Chiropractic Sports Physician practicing in Cottonwood Heights Utah. Revive Sport & Spine provides evidence-supported chiropractic care and conservative sports injury management for the great people and adventurers of the Salt Lake City Valley.


Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome Part 3 - Treatment and Rehabilitation

So we have made it to this point. You have been rolling, stretching, warming up before your runs, but your nagging shin splint pain will not go away. Maybe it has improved 50%, but as you continue to train for your upcoming event, the pain has plateaued. Sound familiar?

I know it has for me. As we discuss treatment options here in part three of our Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome series, a few of the techniques we show that are commonly used here in the office were used to help me overcome my battle with shin splints when I was working toward my first marathon.

Just with any other injury, if you are truly doing everything you can (allowing ample time to warm-up before exercise, training within your limits and not hanging too long in the upper limits as you progress, you are stretching, rolling, and giving constant attention to recovery and rest) and you can not shake the pain after 10-14 days, YOU NEED HELP! Our goal with this series is to give you options, ideas, and a direct path of the things you should be doing, but if they don’t get you to where you need to be, or out of pain…that is why we are here!

Below are a few of the treatment options we typically utilize when caring for medial tibial stress syndrome, as well as a basic return to running rehab protocol that not only provides strength in needed areas but is aimed at preventing future injuries.

NOTE: The care we provide is adapted to each individual person and their presenting condition. What works for one athlete may not work for another. This is where the exam and functional analysis come in. If any of these exercises cause pain, STOP, and seek care from licensed professionals. (Like Us!)


SHIN SPLINTS: IN OFFICE TREATMENT

MYOFASCIAL RELEASE

 
 

IASTM - Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization

 
 

DYNAMIC CUPPING THERAPY

 
 

DRY NEEDLING THERAPY

 
 

KINESIO TAPING

 
 

SHIN SPLINT REHABILITATION PROTOCOLS

Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome - Rehabilitation Exercises - Phase 1

 

Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome - Rehabilitation Exercises - Phase 2

 

Dr. Reheisse is a Board Certified Chiropractic Sports Physician practicing in Cottonwood Heights Utah. Revive Sport & Spine provides evidence-supported chiropractic care and conservative sports injury management.