Salt Lake Sports Rehab

Sciatica Pain Relief Part 2: Common Causes of Sciatica

In part 1 of our Sciatica Pain Relief series, we covered the basics of sciatica, sciatic nerve pain, and the general anatomy involved. While this may not interest everyone, it is useful in understanding the sharp, burning, and often debilitating pain that radiates down the leg that some people experience with low back pain. Our goal in this series is to inform, empower action, and give our fellow Salt Lake City, Utah friends the information and tools to help yourself through this condition as well as the understanding of when to seek care and a trusted source to do so if needed. In part 2, we are going to briefly discuss some of the most common causes of sciatica but before going forward, check out part 1 by clicking the button below.


1) Disc Buldge - Intervertebral Disc Compression

Credit: Allan Ropper, M.D., Ross Zafonte, D.O. Sciatica Review Article. New England Journal of Medicine

Credit: Allan Ropper, M.D., Ross Zafonte, D.O. Sciatica Review Article. New England Journal of Medicine

Starting with the most common cause makes sense as this is what most literature supports and what most people fear when they have some incident or trauma that leaves them with sciatic nerve pain shooting down their leg. A disc bulge is just that, an outpouching, or bulge, of the disc (compressive and supportive tissue between each vertebrae that acts as a shock absorber and allows for movement of the spine) which then presses up against the spinal cord or a nerve as it exits the spinal column. Compression here can be mild to severe, bringing with it anything from pain, numbness, and tingling, to complete weakness of the muscles and limb supplied by the nerve being compressed.

Note: If you are experiencing the latter of those, please seek help immediately as progressive weakness is a red flag and often requires immediate imaging and intervention.

Now, the debate is out on this as disc, and other lumbar spine pathologies are considered somewhat normal. Chances are, before the injury or event that left you feeling this way, the disc bulge was ALREADY PRESENT! This event just aggravated it enough to cause pain.

For Review: Check out the chart in this article we did on spinal imagining and what the best, most current research supports. You will find that most people are walking around with ‘back issues’ with absolutely no pain or quality of life disruption.


  1. You are not your image. Chances are, your MRI will show things that were already present and may not be the primary source of your sciatic nerve pain.

  2. A true disc injury and resulting sciatica take time to heal. The body will do most of the work. Chiropractors and therapists are here to help with symptoms, function, and assuring you are in the best position to heal. There is NO magic pill for this, TIME heals.

  3. If you are experiencing sudden weakness or progressive numbness that does not let up, seek care immediately as intervention is most likely needed to assure permanent damage is not experienced.

2) Lumbar Spine Stenosis - Canal & IVF Narrowing


Similar to a disc bulge, Sciatica related to Spinal Stenosis is a physical compression of the nerve roots that make up the sciatic nerve. However, this is more of a slow growing, progressive problem. In most cases, these do not wake up in severe pain overnight, these patients report constant discomfort, on-again-off-again radiation of pain, slow loss of range of motion, and typically do not have a time or event to relate a start of the pain.

As we age, the spine and discs degenerate. In the disc, this happens by a loss of height, dehydration, and loss of flexibility of the tissue. In the spine, and other high-stress bone and joint areas, degeneration happens by bone growth, bone spurs, and rigidity of the joints. This degeneration can cause enough of a response that bone will grow around areas where nerves pass from the spinal cord to the rest of the body (Intervertebral foramen or IFV) taking an already small space and slowly closing it down.

3) Piriformis Syndrome - Posterior Hip Tightness

We hit on this at length in the first part of our sciatica series. The relationship between the sciatic nerve and the piriformis muscle is well established. Most people have a sciatic nerve the tracks superficially (toward the surface) over the top of the piriformis muscle or just inferior to it. However, there is an appreciable percentage of the population where the sciatic nerve or a branch from it, pierces the middle of the piriformis muscle. It is believed to be the main culprit of 2-12% of sciatica pain with research on both sides stating over and under-diagnosis. Either way, anatomical and occupational variants are common causes of sciatic nerve pain as well as low back pain.

Credit: Allan Ropper, M.D., Ross Zafonte, D.O. Sciatica Review Article. New England Journal of Medicine

Credit: Allan Ropper, M.D., Ross Zafonte, D.O. Sciatica Review Article. New England Journal of Medicine


4) Double Crush Syndrome

Double Crush Syndrome, many of the cases we see fall into this category. Let me explain.

A patient presents after a fall, accident, or just a bad nights sleep with a chief complaint of sciatica with low back pain. An exam reveals a limited range of motion in the lumbar spine, tightness of the muscle in the posterior hip, namely the piriformis muscle, and numbness and tingling down the leg. Let's say that an MRI was ordered and it revealed a mild to moderate disc bulge.

Crush One - The disc bulge, assumed to be caused or irritated by the incident, it mildly compressing the nerve. Crust Two - In response to this injury, the body goes into defense mode and muscles begin to tighten, namely those of the posterior hip.

The initial compression at the spinal level causes a 3/10 pain, when you add in the tightness and compression at the hip, the patient is now up to a 7/10 pain with shocks of pain during specific movements. This is a Double Crush.

As with most, the disc issue is hard to affect with treatment directly, but focus can be directed toward the hip muscles, proper movement of the area and exercises to help with mobility and pain are prescribed, bringing the person back down to a 4/10 pain and allowing them to maintain most daily activities while the disc heals…remember, TIME heals discs.

5) Pregnancy

While this is not a diagnosable cause of Sciatica, sciatica is a very common complaint from expecting mothers. The cause here can be as elusive as any other, but pregnancy, the position of the baby, and the mothers specific size, anatomy, and lifestyle habits and experience with sciatica pain before the pregnancy. While there are many unknowns here, sciatica pain typically affects mothers-to-be in the latter half of the pregnancy, and most will respond to conservative care.



Sciatica is a very well described condition. The direct cause can be challenging to uncover, but there are a few things to be aware of if you are suffering from sciatic nerve pain. If you are experiencing any of the below items, we suggest you seek care immediately to assure the condition does not cause long term issues and to direct you to the right healthcare provider. Most cases can be managed conservatively (Chiropractic, Physical Therapy, or At Home) while others require medical intervention (injections, imaging, or surgery).

  • Progressive neurological symptoms. If you are experiencing numbness, tingling, or weakness that is worsening, please seek help from a trained provider.

  • If your injury is the result of a fall, auto accident, or home/work accident, consulting with a healthcare provider will help rule out any significant issues and speed our recovery.

  • As with other serious low back injuries, if you experience any loss of bowel or bladder control, this is an immediate ER referral.

  • If you have have been dealing with sciatica for more than 1 week without any relief, it is time to get help. Most self-resolving injuries and pain will let up after a couple days.

Dr. Reheisse is a Board Certified Chiropractic Sports Physician practicing in Cottonwood Heights Utah. Revive Sport & Spine provides evidence-supported chiropractic care and conservative sports injury management.

Iliotibial Band Syndrome: Self-Care & Training Modification

As we work our way through this series, let not forget what we have learned so far.

  • Iliotibial band syndrome is a common overuse injury plaguing runners of all abilities. The most common offense is trying to increase your volume too soon while also increasing the intensity without cross-training or varying surfaces.

  • The Iliotibial band DOES NOT STRETCH! The tension we feel is caused by the muscles that support the IT band, Tensor Fascia Latae and Gluteus Maximus.

  • The stabbing pain we experiences as runners suffering from IT band syndrome is thought to be caused by the band itself shifting forward and backward as the knee flexes and extends. The research is out on that one…if we ever reach a consensus, I will let you all know!

Where are we now? Well…if you have made it this far, you are probably dealing with IT band syndrome and wondering if it will ever go away and let you get back to running the way you would like.

For this, we are going to discuss self-care. What you can do about the knee pain and tight hips at home while also mentioning a few stretches you can do at work or out on a run. Our goal is simple - Allow you to continue to train, modified while improving your IT band syndrome pain week-to-week.

What we are talking about today, where the real work takes place, the day in and day out self-care. And the big question….can you continue training?




I can not stress this enough! As you are working through an injury, maintaining some kind of load (training volume) is important, but you are better served spending time on a proper warm up, running just a few miles, then spending a good amount of time on the cool down. With just about every running injury we deal with, runners have a dismal warm-up if one at all. Most are so pressed for time, they lace up the shoes, run out the door, only to return and head straight to work. Most of us are not teenagers anymore, our bodies just can’t do this…not for long periods anyway. Start with a thorough warm-up - we will emphasize this again in our next article where we talk rehab and return to running so prepare yourself!




Understanding that foam rolling and stretching of the IT band itself is ineffective, where do we focus our attention? The hips…it is always the hips! But some attention at the knee can be beneficial while appropriate rest and recovery are always suggested after an acute flair-up or long run.

  • Rest & Recovery:

    • Traditional pain relievers for running related pain include ice, heat, topical creams like biofreeze, and some good old-fashioned rest. Today we have an array of tools that can aid in recovery, one we like to use frequently are compression boots from Rapid Reboot. We don’t expect everyone just to have these lying around, but they sure feel great after some dry needling, IASTM, and manipulation in the clinic.

  • Rolling & Stretching:

    • Now that we understand what anatomy we need to address, it is time to get your roll on! If we are able to continue to train, we suggest rolling and stretching 4-5 times each day. Before you lose it, these sessions are only 3-4 minutes each. If you are a frequent runner, or just starting out, here are the basics.

    • Rollers should be in your home, office, and car. You should have at least 3 lacrosse balls around, purse, cup holder in your car, in your desk, and your gym bag.

    • Roll in the morning, pre and post run, after your lunch break, when you get home, and then a good session before bed.

  • Cupping & Flossing:

    • These may not be tools accessible to all, but they help you achieve stretching in ways that are difficult to do on your own. One of my personal approaches to provide relief to the knee pain we experience with IT Band syndrome is to place a few cups (I have a few sets of these) around the lateral knee and lateral quadricep muscle, walk about for a few minutes, perform a few squats, rinse and repeat 2-3 times per week.




Training modification is the hardest part to address. For most, the ability to continue training toward your race is almost as important as fixing the injury. While maintaining some load is ideal, there are instances where a total shut-down is necessary for a few weeks. If you are a typical runner, meaning that you are going to run through the injury, we must modify. Here are the basics. Remember that Iliotibial band syndrome is the result of too much mileage or intensity, too soon in your training plan. Not having a proper base as you head into a 20-week marathon training plan is a recipe for disaster.

  • Our first suggestion is to cut your volume by 50% and decrease your intensity for the next 2-4 weeks. Our goal is to maintain some running, but the speed work and downhill bombs need to take a backseat for a while.

  • Please, cross-train! As runners, we think that running is it, period. When we are injured, and more so when we are not so that we can prevent injury, we must cross train. If you have been battling IT band syndrome for more than a few weeks, it is time to work in some biking, swimming and weightlifting. This allows you to maintain most of your cardiovascular capacity while taking out the pounding associated with running.

  • Lastly, look at your running form. Can it be cleaned up a bit? For most of us, that is a very strong, Yes! I’m not saying to go out and get an extensive running evaluation to change the subtle nuances of your stride, most of us just are not at that level, but shortening your stride, increasing your cadence, and working on your running drills can provide a needed boost in your running efficiency.

    • Cadence should be upwards of 170-180 steps per minute.

    • Perform drills on a soft surface (track or field) 2-3 times per week.

    • More on this in the rehab portion next week.

Dr. Reheisse is a Board Certified Chiropractic Sports Physician practicing in the Greater Salt Lake City Area of Utah. Revive Sport & Spine provides evidence-supported chiropractic care and conservative sports injury management.

Iliotibial Band Syndrome: Anatomy & Symptoms Of The Most Common Running Injury

You are out on another long run. It is a mid-Saturday morning, the weather is a cool 50 degrees, clear skies, and your focus is on the audiobook or podcast playing through your headphones. All of a sudden, out of nowhere, you get this sharp, STABBING, pain on the outside of your knee. Where did this come from? Did you do something wrong? What the heck is happening?


If this is your first time dealing with Iliotibial band syndrome, or you are remembering your first experience with it right now, the feeling is all too real. IT Band issues are a frequent occurrence for runners of all abilities, one of the most common conditions we relieve in our office and feel so prevalent that it is almost a ‘right of passage’ of sorts for new runners.

In this series, we are going to dive into the details of IT band issues, what causes this dreaded running injury, what you can do about it when it happens to you (It Will!), and when you need to seek care to help get your training back on track. I can tell you from experience, as a past sufferer of IT band issues myself, it can be stubborn, frustrating, and damaging to your confidence as a runner…but it does not have to be.

I tell patients daily that IT Band syndrome is a relatively easy condition to treat…but it requires time, effort, and a change of routine. We start here today by understanding what it is and move through this series to self-treatment and prevention.




… and why you can’t just stretch the Iliotibial band and make it better.

ITBS anatomy.png


Insertion Points: Iliac Crest, Knee

Muscles Involved & To Know:

  • Tensor Fascia Latae

  • Gluteus Maximus

  • Gluteus Medius

The Iliotibial tract runs from the hip (iliac crest) to the knee with insertion on the tibia at Gerdy’s Tubercle (trivia!) and is believed to also span some fibers to the outside of the kneecap and head of the fibula. The IT band itself acts as a stabilizer of the lateral knee while also extending, abduct, and laterally rotate the hip when the associated muscles are functioning properly.

If you notice, the band itself is fibrous, meaning…

it is not designed to stretch.

Attention must be given to the muscles that make up and act on the IT band. Those would be the Tensor Fascia Latae (TFL) and the Gluteus Maximus (G. Max). If attention is not given to these essential muscles for running that are involved in stability, pelvic balance, and propulsion, they will slowly tighten up, eventually leading to a - multiple month long - process to rid yourself of the stabbing knee pain it can cause. We will discuss the biomechanics and how to address these muscles later in this series, but this is the basics that you must know to help relieve Iliotibial band pain while running. Focus on the muscles…not the band and the site of pain.




As described at the beginning of this article, Iliotibial Band Syndrome has a very distinct presentation of pain and discomfort. While the hip tightness is often not recognized, appreciated, or correlated until after we exam someone and describe the nature of their injury, the pain at the side of the knee is unmistakable. So that we have a more tangible understanding of this pain, here is a more succinct description.

sharp or burning pain at the lateral joint line of the knee.

How common is Iliotibial Band Syndrome? With injury prevalence in runners nearly 50% (Studies suggest 25-65%), IT Band Syndrome is the most common lateral knee injury.

  • IT Band Syndrome makes up nearly 15% off all running injuries.

  • Studies suggest it is slightly more common in male runners, new runners, and higher volume runners.

  • Clinical experience suggests it is one of the most common injuries runners present to a sports chiropractic office with.

Now that we have some understanding of the anatomy and prevalence of Iliotibial Band Syndrome in runners, we will progress our conversation to risks, common causes, and the biomechanics associated with ITBS.

Dr. Reheisse is a Board Certified Chiropractic Sports Physician practicing in Cottonwood Heights Utah. Revive Sport & Spine provides evidence-supported chiropractic care and conservative sports injury management.